Authors: A. Ologundudu, A. O. Ologundudu, I. A. Ololade, F. O. Obi
This study examines the effects of anthocyanin extract of the dried calyces ofHibiscus sabdariffa Linn on the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2, 4-DNPH)-induced toxic side effects in rabbits liver. The side effects of DNPH which include tissue lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidant defenses were induced in rabbits with a single intraperitoneal administration of the toxicant (28 mg kg-1 body weight) at the end of a 14-day treatment with Hibiscus anthocyanin extract (100 mg kg-1 body weight twice daily) and after the animals have been fasted overnight. Four hours after the toxicant administration, liver and blood of the experimental animals were analyzed for changes in the activities of hepatic enzyme markers (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases; ALT and AST respectively). The hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble protein as well as antioxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also determined. The anthocyanin extract significantly (p < 0.05) lowered the serum levels of the hepatic enzymes ALT and AST and reduced oxidative liver damage. The extract also significantly counteracted the depleting action of DNPH on the liver protein, SOD and GSH levels. Relative to the DNPH treated group, the extract significantly inhibited the formation of MDA in the liver. The data generated in this investigation show that the anthocyanin extract of H. sabdariffa dried calyces has potent protective properties against 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-induced oxidative hepatic toxicity in rabbits. Key words: Anthocyanin, antioxidant defenses, 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, hepatic enzyme markers, Hibiscus sabdariffa, lipid peroxidation.