Authors: DW Taura, MH Maje, AM Koki, MG Musa
The increasing incidence of Candidiasis affecting the genitourinary tracts as well as the introduction of new antifungal drugs has recently highlighted the need for performing fungal susceptibility tests. To determine the antifungal resistance among Candida species from the genitourinary tracts, 689 Urine and High vaginal swab (HVS) samples were collected from female patients clinically diagnosed with genitourinary tract infection between September 2011 to January 2012. The samples were inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Isolates from SDA were placed on Corn Med agar (CMA) to ensure detection of mixed cultures. Germ tube tests were performed for identification of the isolates. Susceptibility tests were carried on the isolates using broth dilution method. The occurrence rate of Candida species were as follows: Candida albicans 124 (48.4%), Candida glabrata 89 (34.8%), Candida krusei 23 (9.0%) and Candida Tropicalis 20 (7.8%). The rate of occurrence of Candida species in high vaginal swab 76 (61.3%) was significantly higher than that of urine 48 (38.7%). Distribution of Candida species among different age groups show that, the highest incidence was in age brackets 20 – 30 158 (61.7%), while that of 41-50 and above 8 (3.1%) had the least. High rate of susceptibility was observed for each isolate against Fluconazole 23 (65.7%) and Ketoconazole 22 (62.9%). The resistance rate was 12 (34.3%) for Fluconazole and Ketoconazole 13 (37.1%). These results incriminate C. albicansas the most common Candida species causing genitourinary tract infection in women. This surveillance study has established Fluconazole and Ketoconazole as very effective antifungal agents for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections caused by Candida species. Keywords : Antifungal resistance, Candida species, Genitourinary tract and Infections.