Society of African Journal Editors

Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics

Congenital anomalies: Prospective study of pattern and associated risk factors in infants presenting to a tertiary hospital in Anambra State, South-east Nigeria

Authors: OH Ekwunife, CC Okoli, JO Ugwu, VI Modekwe, AC Ekwesianya

Journal: Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics

Background : Contemporary understanding of the pattern of congenital anomalies is both important in its clinical management as well as in improving the overall health of the community. Methodology : All infants presenting from January to December 2102 at the centre were prospectively studied. Results : A total of 5010 infants were screened, of which 108 have congenital anomalies giving a prevalence of 2.2%. Major anomalies were noted in 101 (93.5%) infants. Only two (1.9%) were preterm. Consanguineous relationship was observed in 2 (1.9%) cases. Pre natal Ultrasound scan was done in 33(30.8%), but in only 7 (6.5%) was any anomaly detected Onitsha, a densely populated urban area contributed 45(42%) of the cases. Only 7(6.5%) of the mothers took herbal prescriptions in the first trimester of pregnancy. Risk of anomaly progressively rises, reaching a peak of 48% in the maternal age group of 26-30 years and drops steadily after. Gastrointestinal tract anomalies were most common (no. =28, 25.9%). Residences close to dump sites, telecom masts/base stations, electricity cables, industries and heavy motorised highways contributed to risk factors in 9-12 % of cases. Conclusion : More of younger mothers were affected with gastro intestinal malformations predominating. The location of home environment is a potential risk factor that will require further characterisation. Key words : Congenital disorder, Malformations, Birth defects, Risk factors, Epidemiology, Nigeria, Anambra