Society of African Journal Editors

Nigerian Journal of Technological Development

Study of Breakage Tendencies of Palm Kernel, Coconut and Periwinkle Shells using Ball-Milling Process

Authors: J. O. Agunsoye, J. E. Anyanwu, S. A. Bello, S. B. Hassan

Journal: Nigerian Journal of Technological Development

The needs for eco-friendly composites have initiated the use of agricultural wastes as possible replacements for expensive synthetic carbon and glass fillers for metal and polymer strengthening. In this study, degree of refinement of palm kernel shells, coconut shells and periwinkle shells has been investigated through ball-milling approach. Palm kernel, coconut and periwinkle shells were pulverised using disc grinder and refined using top-down approach under the same milling conditions. The particles of palm kernel, coconut and periwinkle shells obtained were analysed and their sizes were determined. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic and X-ray Diffractometric analyses indicated different compositions of the examined agricultural wastes particles. Imaging sizing of the particles indicated attainment of nanoparticles when milling for 74 hours at 10 charge ratios for both carbonized and uncarbonized palm kernel, coconut and periwinkle shells. Comparison of sizes showed that uncarbonized palm kernel shell has a least grain size among other uncarbonized agricultural waste particles. Therefore, uncarbonised palm kernel shells have highest breakage tendency among others. KEYWORDS : Degree, Refinement, Agricultural wastes, Fillers, Milling.